Male Blackbird

The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a familiar sight in gardens, woodlands, and urban areas across Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

Understanding the nesting habits of these fascinating birds can provide insights into their ecology, reproduction, and survival.

This article will explore the nesting behaviour of blackbirds, delving into whether they return to previously used nests and the factors that influence this behaviour.

Blackbird Overview

Blackbirds, scientifically known as Turdus merula, are medium-sized passerine birds that are part of the Turdidae family. This family includes thrushes, robins, and other related species. Blackbirds can be found across Europe, Asia, and North Africa, making them a familiar sight for many people in these regions.

Physical Characteristics

Males and females exhibit sexual dimorphism, meaning their physical appearance differs between the sexes. Male blackbirds are easily recognizable by their glossy black plumage and striking bright yellow eye-ring, which contrasts with their dark feathers. Their bills are also yellow, making them even more visually distinctive.

Females, on the other hand, have a more subtle appearance. Their plumage is generally brown, with a paler throat and mottled or streaked underparts. This colouration allows them to blend in with their surroundings more effectively, providing additional camouflage while nesting and foraging.

Song and Communication

One of the most remarkable characteristics of blackbirds is their beautiful, melodious songs. Males are known to sing throughout the year, but their songs are especially frequent and noticeable during the breeding season.

Their rich, flute-like songs serve to establish and defend territories, as well as attract potential mates. In addition to their songs, blackbirds also communicate using various calls, such as alarm calls to warn others of potential threats.

Diet and Foraging Behaviour

Primarily ground foragers, blackbirds have a varied diet that includes insects, earthworms, fruits, and berries. They use their strong bills to search for food beneath leaf litter and soil, often turning over leaves and debris to uncover hidden morsels.

During the breeding season, their diet consists mainly of protein-rich invertebrates to support the growth and development of their chicks. As the season progresses and fruits and berries become more abundant, blackbirds will shift their diet to include these energy-rich food sources.

Note: Blackbirds can devastate lawns in their search for grubs.

Habitats and Distribution

Blackbirds are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats. They inhabit deciduous and mixed forests, parks, gardens, and urban environments, making them one of the most commonly encountered bird species in these areas.

Their adaptability allows them to thrive in both rural and urban settings, as long as there is adequate vegetation and food availability.

Blackbird Nesting Habits

The nesting season for blackbirds usually begins in early spring and lasts until late summer, with females typically laying three to five eggs per clutch.

They prefer to build their nests in dense vegetation, offering protection from predators and the elements. Suitable nesting sites include hedges, shrubs, trees, and even buildings or other man-made structures.

Nests are meticulously constructed by the female, using grass, twigs, and mud to create a cup-shaped structure lined with fine materials such as rootlets, moss, and hair. Once completed, the female incubates the eggs for approximately 13-14 days, while the male provides food and protection.

Blackbird Nest with 4 Eggs
Blackbird Nest with Eggs

Do Blackbirds Return to Old Nests?

The question of whether blackbirds return to their old nests is a multifaceted one, as several factors can influence this decision. In some cases, blackbirds may indeed reuse their nests, while in others, they may opt to build a new one.

Understanding the factors that drive this behaviour can provide valuable insights into the ecology and survival strategies of these birds.

Factors Influencing Nest Reuse

Availability of Suitable Nesting Sites

If suitable nesting sites are scarce, blackbirds may be more inclined to reuse an old nest. This can be due to habitat loss or competition with other birds for prime nesting locations.

The Success of the Previous Nesting Attempt

If a previous nesting attempt was successful, meaning the eggs hatched and the chicks fledged, blackbirds might be more likely to return to the same nest. This is because the nest location has proven to be safe and suitable for raising their young.

Presence of Parasites or Diseases

Nests can harbour parasites or pathogens that can pose a threat to the health of the birds and their offspring. If a nest is infested with parasites or carries a disease, blackbirds are less likely to reuse it.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nest Reuse

There are several advantages and disadvantages associated with blackbirds reusing old nests, which may influence their decision-making.


Conservation of Energy and Resources

Building a new nest requires time, effort, and materials. By reusing an old nest, blackbirds can conserve energy and resources, allowing them to focus on other aspects of reproduction, such as foraging and territory defence.

Familiarity with the Nesting Site

Returning to a previously used nest means that the blackbirds are already familiar with the surrounding area. This familiarity can provide a sense of security and allow them to better anticipate potential threats, such as predators or adverse weather conditions.


Increased Risk of Parasite Infestation

Reusing a nest can result in the build-up of parasites, such as mites, lice, or fleas. These parasites can negatively impact the health of the blackbirds and their offspring, potentially reducing their chances of survival.

Accumulation of Waste

Over time, nests can accumulate waste, including faeces and decomposing materials. This build-up can create unsanitary conditions that may increase the risk of disease or infection for the birds and their young.

Attracting Predators

An established nest location can become known to predators, such as squirrels, snakes, or larger birds of prey. By returning to the same nest, blackbirds may inadvertently increase their vulnerability to predation.

Impact of Human Activity on Blackbird Nesting

Human activities can significantly impact blackbird nesting behaviour. Habitat loss due to deforestation or urbanization can reduce the availability of suitable nesting sites, forcing blackbirds to reuse previous nests or establish nests in less-than-ideal locations.

The presence of domestic animals, particularly cats, can also pose a threat to blackbirds and their nests.

To support blackbird nesting and contribute to their conservation, people can implement measures such as planting native trees and shrubs, providing birdhouses or nesting platforms, and keeping cats indoors or supervised when outdoors during the nesting season.


In conclusion, blackbirds exhibit intricate nesting behaviour, and whether they return to previously used nests depends on a range of factors. Understanding these behaviours and the pressures blackbirds face can help us appreciate the natural world and develop strategies to conserve their populations.

By creating suitable habitats and minimizing human-related threats, we can ensure the continued presence of these melodious birds in our gardens and woodlands for generations to come.

Garden Doctor Trev

Garden Doctor Tips

“Blackbirds can recognize individual humans. Studies have shown that they can distinguish between people who pose a threat and those who don’t, modifying their behaviour accordingly. This indicates a high level of intelligence and adaptability in these birds!”

“Although blackbirds are primarily ground foragers, they are also capable of catching insects in mid-air, showcasing their agility and versatility in their feeding habits. This behaviour is more commonly observed during the breeding season when they require a higher protein intake for their growing chicks!”

“Blackbirds have been observed “sunbathing” by spreading their wings and exposing their bodies to sunlight. This behaviour is thought to serve multiple purposes, such as helping to maintain their plumage by dislodging parasites, aiding in the synthesis of vitamin D, and regulating their body temperature!”

“Blackbirds are known to engage in “anting”, where they rub ants or other insects on their feathers. This peculiar activity is thought to help them remove parasites, as the insects release formic acid, which acts as a natural pesticide. Anting may also have a soothing effect on their skin or help maintain their plumage!”

Frequently Asked Questions

Do blackbirds leave their eggs unattended?

Blackbirds, like most birds, may leave their eggs unattended for brief periods to search for food or take short breaks. However, they generally remain nearby to monitor and protect the nest from potential threats, such as predators or harsh weather.

Where have the blackbirds gone from my garden?

Several factors can cause blackbirds to leave a garden, including seasonal changes, food scarcity, disturbances (e.g., construction or loud noises), or the presence of predators like cats. To encourage blackbirds to return, consider providing food sources, such as bird feeders, and creating a safe environment with native plants and sheltered nesting sites.

Do blackbirds recognize humans?

Indeed, blackbirds possess the ability to recognize individual humans. They are capable of differentiating between people who present a threat and those who do not, adjusting their behaviour in response. This skill underscores their remarkable intelligence and adaptability.

Do blackbirds return to the same garden?

Blackbirds may return to the same garden, especially if it provides a reliable food source, suitable nesting sites, and a safe environment. Familiarity with the area can offer a sense of security and increase the chances of successful breeding.

Why have my blackbirds disappeared?

Blackbirds may disappear from an area due to changes in their environment, such as reduced food availability, disturbances, or increased predator presence. Seasonal changes, such as migration or shifting feeding patterns, can also contribute to their temporary absence.

What is the lifespan of a blackbird?

The average lifespan of a blackbird is about 2-3 years, although some individuals can live up to 6 years or more in the wild. Their lifespan is influenced by various factors, including predation, disease, and environmental conditions.

Can I remove a blackbird nest UK?

In the UK, it is illegal to intentionally disturb or destroy an active blackbird nest with eggs or chicks under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. If a nest poses a genuine risk or causes significant inconvenience, it is recommended to wait until the nesting season is over and the chicks have fledged before removing the nest.

About Me

Hi, I’m Trev and I’ve been growing things since I can remember. When I was younger, I grew up on a farm, so I have always been around plants and animals. After studying horticulture at university, I decided to start my own nursery which I have run now for 25 years. In my spare time, I run this website – which is a resource for people who want to learn more about their gardens.

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