Espalier, a centuries-old horticultural art form, is more than just a space-saving technique – it’s a blend of science and art that transforms ordinary fruit trees into living sculptures. At its core, espalier training is about harnessing the natural growth of a tree, directing it in deliberate patterns for both aesthetic appeal and optimised fruit production. If you want to grow fruit but do not have enough space for a whopping great tree in the garden then an espalier fruit tree might be the right solution for you. In this guide, we’ll delve deep into the nuances of training a fruit tree, ensuring that by the end, you’ll be well-equipped to embark on your own espalier adventure.
What Is An Espalier Fruit Tree?
An espalier fruit tree is a tree trained to grow flat against a wall, fence, or trellis in a specific pattern or design. This ancient horticultural practice not only maximises fruit production in limited spaces but also adds decorative appeal to gardens, allowing gardeners to create living art with branches and fruits.
Benefits of Espalier Fruit Tree Training
Espalier training offers a myriad of advantages that cater to both the practical and aesthetic needs of gardeners.
One of the primary benefits of espalier training is its ability to maximise fruit production in limited spaces. By training trees to grow flat against a support structure, gardeners can cultivate fruit trees in narrow or confined areas, making them an ideal choice for urban gardens, patios, or small backyards.
Enhanced Fruit Production
Beyond just saving space, espalier training can lead to increased fruit yields. The horizontal orientation of the branches allows for more even sunlight distribution, ensuring that more buds transition to fruit-bearing spurs. Additionally, the structured design facilitates better air circulation, reducing the risk of fungal diseases and promoting healthier growth.
Aesthetic Appeal and Decorative Purposes
Beyond the practical benefits, espalier training is a visual delight. The deliberate patterns and designs transform ordinary fruit trees into living art pieces, adding a touch of elegance and sophistication to any garden. Whether it’s a simple horizontal cordon or a more intricate fan design, an espaliered tree is sure to be a focal point, marrying functionality with beauty.
How to Choose the Right Tree for Espalier?
Selecting the appropriate tree for espalier tree training is crucial, as not all trees are amenable to this specialised form of cultivation. Here’s what you need to consider:
Factors to Consider
- Tree Type: Not all fruit trees are suitable for espalier. It’s essential to choose species and varieties known for their adaptability to this training method.
- Growth Rate: Trees with a moderate growth rate are ideal. Those that grow too quickly can become unmanageable, while slow growers might not provide the desired aesthetic in a reasonable timeframe.
- Suitability: The tree’s natural growth habit and flexibility play a role. Trees with flexible branches are easier to train without causing damage.
List of Best Fruit Trees for Espalier Training
- Apple (Malus spp.): One of the most popular choices, apple trees, especially dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties, are well-suited for espalier.
- Pear (Pyrus spp.): Like apples, pears adapt well to espalier training, with many varieties offering beautiful blossoms in spring.
- Fig (Ficus carica): With its large leaves and unique fruit, fig trees can create a stunning espalier display.
- Plum (Prunus spp.): While slightly more challenging, certain plum varieties can be espaliered with patience and care.
- Cherry (Prunus avium): Dwarf cherry varieties can be trained as espalier, though they require diligent pruning.
Step-by-Step Guide to Espalier Training
Embarking on the journey of espalier training requires a blend of the right tools, knowledge, and patience. Here’s a comprehensive guide to help you master this ancient art:
What You Need
- Pruning Shears
- Ties or Soft Twine
- Support Structures
- Bamboo Canes
Start as you mean to go on, getting the initial setup right for your espaliered tree is absolutely crucial.
Planting the Tree
- Choose a location with good sunlight and well-draining soil.
- Dig a hole twice as wide as the root ball and as deep.
- Place the tree in the hole, ensuring it’s straight, and fill it with soil.
- Water thoroughly after planting.
- Leave between 12ft and 20ft between trees (this can be reduced with the right nutrition).
Setting up Support Structures
- Install posts at intervals along the desired width of the espalier.
- Stretch wires between posts at horizontal intervals approximately 30-45cm apart.
- If using a trellis or frame, secure it firmly to a wall or fence.
First Year – Espalier Tree Pruning and Shaping Techniques
Pruning and shaping are the cornerstones of espalier training, ensuring that the tree grows in the desired pattern while optimising fruit production.
Here’s a more detailed look into these techniques:
Timing is Crucial
- Late Winter or Early Spring Pruning: This is the ideal time as the tree is still dormant, reducing the risk of transmitting diseases. The absence of leaves also provides a clearer view of the tree’s structure, allowing for more precise cuts.
Cutting Back the Main Stem
- Why: Cutting back the main stem, also known as the leader, encourages the tree to produce lateral branches. This is essential for forming the primary horizontal tiers in espalier patterns.
- How: Using sharp pruning shears, make a clean cut about 18-24 inches above the ground. Ensure the cut is just above a bud, as this is where new growth will emerge. The angle of the cut should be slightly slanted away from the bud to prevent water from settling.
Managing New Espalier Shoots
- Observation: As the growing season progresses, numerous shoots will emerge from the tree. It’s essential to monitor this growth closely to determine which shoots are most viable for training.
Espalier Tree Branch Selection
- Criteria: Look for shoots that are robust, evenly spaced, and grow at the desired angle for your espalier pattern. Ideally, these shoots should emerge opposite each other on the main stem, ensuring symmetry in the design.
- Thinning: Not all shoots are beneficial. Remove weaker or overcrowded shoots to direct the tree’s energy to the primary branches. This is especially important in the tree’s early years to establish a strong foundation.
Tying and Guiding
- Materials: Use soft ties or twine to avoid damaging the tender young branches. Avoid materials that can cut into the bark, such as wire or rough string.
- Technique: Gently bend the selected shoot towards the wire, tying it loosely. The goal is to guide its growth without putting undue stress on the branch. As the shoot grows and thickens, you may need to adjust or replace ties to accommodate its size.
- Direction: For horizontal espalier patterns, guide the shoots to grow parallel to the ground. For other designs, like the fan or candelabra, the angle might vary.
Subsequent Years – Maintenance Pruning and Shaping
As the espaliered tree progresses beyond its formative years, the focus shifts from initial shaping to maintenance and optimisation. This phase is crucial in ensuring the tree’s health, maximising fruit yield, and preserving the artistic design.
Here’s a comprehensive look into the care and techniques for the subsequent years:
Tying New Growth
- Regular Checks: As the tree grows, new shoots will continuously emerge. It’s essential to inspect the tree regularly, ideally every few weeks during the growing season.
- Guidance: Using soft ties, gently secure these new shoots to the support structure. This not only maintains the tree’s shape but also ensures that the branches grow in the desired direction, be it horizontal, vertical, or diagonal based on the espalier pattern.
- Adjustments: Over time, as branches thicken and mature, previous ties might become tight or restrictive. Periodically adjust or replace these ties to prevent them from cutting into the bark.
Espalier Tree Pruning Techniques
- Late Winter Pruning: This is the best time for major pruning tasks. The tree’s dormancy reduces the risk of disease transmission through open cuts.
- Unwanted Shoots: Identify and remove shoots that don’t align with the espalier design or those that overcrowd the structure. This selective removal ensures that the tree’s energy is directed towards the primary branches.
- Fruiting Spurs: As the tree matures, it’s beneficial to shorten the length of new shoots. This encourages the development of fruiting spurs, which are short, stubby branches that bear fruit. By maintaining a balance between vegetative growth and fruiting spurs, you optimise fruit production.
Espalier Tree Density Management
- The Perils of Overcrowding: A dense canopy can be counterproductive. It restricts sunlight penetration and reduces air circulation, creating a conducive environment for pests and diseases. Moreover, a thick canopy can hinder fruit development and ripening.
- Thinning: Periodically thin out the canopy by removing overlapping or inward-growing branches. This ensures that all parts of the tree receive adequate sunlight, essential for photosynthesis and fruit ripening.
- Visual Inspection: Stand back and observe the tree from different angles. This helps in identifying areas that are becoming too dense or sections that seem sparse. Adjust your pruning strategy accordingly.
Advanced Espalier Tree Training Techniques
Advanced techniques that can fine-tune the growth and appearance of the tree can address specific challenges and enhance the overall health and productivity of the tree.
Regulating the Vigour of Branches
- Understanding Branch Vigour: Branch vigour refers to the growth rate and robustness of a branch. In espalier training, achieving a balance in branch vigour across the tree is crucial for a harmonious appearance and optimal fruit production.
Manipulating Growth Through Angling
- Overly Vigorous Branches: A branch that grows too rapidly can overshadow its neighbours, disrupting the symmetry of the espalier design. One way to curb its enthusiasm is by adjusting its angle. Making the branch more horizontal, or even slightly downward, can reduce its vigour. This is because a more horizontal orientation slows the flow of sap, which in turn slows growth.
- Boosting Weak Branches: On the flip side, if a branch appears weak or lagging in growth, repositioning it to a more vertical angle can invigorate it. A vertical orientation promotes the flow of sap, encouraging faster growth.
Addressing Common Challenges and Solutions
There are a few common problems that you may have to deal with but they are easy enough to rectify:
Overcrowding and Air Circulation
- The Importance of Space: Adequate spacing between branches ensures better sunlight penetration and air circulation. This not only promotes fruit ripening but also reduces the risk of fungal diseases that thrive in damp, shaded conditions.
- Thinning for Health: If you notice areas where branches overlap or grow too closely, it’s time for thinning. Remove select branches to open up the canopy, prioritising those that don’t align with the espalier pattern or appear weaker.
Pests and Diseases
- Regular Monitoring: Make it a habit to inspect the tree closely, looking for signs of pests like aphids, caterpillars, or diseases like powdery mildew.
- Prompt Action: At the first sign of trouble, address the issue. This might involve removing affected leaves, applying organic insecticidal soap, or pruning away diseased sections. Early intervention can prevent minor issues from escalating into major problems.
Common Espalier Fruit Tree Mistakes and How to Avoid Them
Recognising and understanding these common mistakes that beginners make can pave the way for a smoother and more successful espalier journey.
Here’s a guide to some frequent mistakes and expert advice on how to sidestep or rectify them:
Choosing the Wrong Tree Variety
- Mistake: Beginners often select tree varieties that aren’t well-suited for espalier training, leading to disappointing results.
- Expert Advice: Research and choose fruit tree varieties known for their adaptability to espalier. Consult local nurseries or gardening communities for recommendations tailored to your region.
- Mistake: Over-pruning or making cuts in the wrong places can hinder the tree’s growth and fruit production.
- Expert Advice: Always prune with a clear objective in mind. Familiarise yourself with the tree’s growth patterns and prune during the tree’s dormant season to minimise stress.
Neglecting Regular Maintenance
- Mistake: Espalier requires consistent care. Neglecting regular maintenance can lead to unruly growth and a loss of the desired shape.
- Expert Advice: Set a routine for checking and adjusting ties, pruning unwanted shoots, and ensuring the tree’s health. Regular attention prevents minor issues from becoming major problems.
Using Damaging Ties
- Mistake: Using harsh or tight ties can damage the tree’s bark, leading to wounds or restricted growth.
- Expert Advice: Opt for soft, flexible ties like cloth strips or specialised plant ties. Check and adjust them periodically to ensure they’re not constricting the branches.
Inadequate Support Structures
- Mistake: Weak or improperly installed support structures can fail to support the tree’s growth, leading to breakages or a distorted shape.
- Expert Advice: Invest in sturdy support materials like robust posts and durable wires. Ensure they’re securely installed and can bear the weight of a maturing tree.
Ignoring Pests and Diseases
- Mistake: Overlooking early signs of pests or diseases can lead to widespread infestations or severe health issues for the tree.
- Expert Advice: Regularly inspect the tree for signs of pests or diseases. Address any issues promptly using organic treatments or seek advice from local horticulturists.
Espalier apple trees are trees that are trained to grow horizontally across a wall or a fence and are great for gardens where space is limited. They provide a beautiful aesthetic and pruning the trees is thought to be far easier. While many people are concerned that training an Espalier apple tree will be a difficult task, it may be easier than you thought. The process of training and growing your Espalier apple tree will take some years, depending on how many tiers you want it to have. However, once established, these decorative trees require nothing more than annual pruning and will continue to bear fruit for many years to come.
Garden Doctor Tips
“MM106 root-stock is best for growing small espaliers!”
“Remove any blossom in a young tree to promote growth elsewhere!”
“Horizontal wires or bamboo make great espalier frames!”
“Once you are happy with the height, take the top off to promote growth lower down!”
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the best root stock for an espalier apple tree?
If the soil quality is reduced, then it may be better to go for something more resilient such as the MM111 rootstock which is also good for larger trees. However, for something more compact, you can use rootstocks M26 and MM106.
What fruit trees are best for Espalier?
Espalier is a method of training trees to grow in a flat, even shape. The most popular types of fruit trees for Espalier are apples and pears. If you have limited space this is an excellent way to maximise your production potential!
Can any fruit trees be espaliered?
Espalier is a method for growing fruit trees, and they make it easy to grow a large number of plants in a small space. There are many varieties of trees that can be grown as an espalier: apple, pear, peach, cherry, plum, apricot and grapevine. The most popular type is the apple tree.
How do you start an espalier tree?
The answer to the question of how do you start an espalier tree? is really quite simple. All you need are two things: a fruit tree and some wire. The type of wire used will depend on the size and shape of your desired espaliered pattern.
Trevor Wright is not just a seasoned horticulturist; he’s the esteemed Garden Doctor. With a BSc in Horticulture and years of hands-on experience in the soil, Trevor has become a trusted mentor for all things gardening. As the founder of Garden Doctor, he’s committed to clarifying the intricacies of gardening, offering straightforward advice that’s rooted in years of practice. His writing is a garden of how-tos, savvy insights, and comprehensive guides that enable individuals to nurture and grow their garden dreams. When he’s not knee-deep in garden beds, Trevor is at his keyboard passing on his green-thumbed wisdom to budding gardeners, ensuring that the legacy of sustainable and joyful gardening blossoms far and wide.