Japanese knotweed, a highly invasive plant, poses significant challenges to ecosystems and property owners. Originally from East Asia, this aggressive species has spread widely, particularly in the UK and other parts of Europe and North America. Its rapid growth and resilience make it a formidable foe to native plants and biodiversity. Controlling Japanese knotweed is not just a matter of garden aesthetics; it’s an environmental imperative. This plant’s robust nature allows it to overpower local flora, disrupt animal habitats, and even damage building foundations. Mitigating its spread is crucial to preserving both natural ecosystems and human-made structures.

Knotweed Shoot (left) vs Large Overgrown Knotweed Patch (right)
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What Does Japanese Knotweed Look Like?

Identifying Japanese knotweed correctly is the first step in effective management. Young Japanese knotweed resembles asparagus, with red or purple shoots. As it matures, it develops into hollow, bamboo-like stems that are green with distinctive purple speckles. The plant features large, heart-shaped leaves and during late summer, it produces creamy-white flowers.

Where Do You Find Japanese Knotweed in the UK?

Knotweed’s adaptability means it can grow in diverse environments. It’s frequently found in disturbed areas like roadsides and railway embankments, as well as near water bodies like rivers and streams. Understanding these preferred habitats is key to early detection and control.

How Does Knotweed Spread?

Japanese knotweed spreads primarily through its rhizomes (underground roots), which can extend far from the parent plant, and even small fragments can give rise to new plants. Stem fragments, capable of regenerating, contribute to its rapid spread. This resilient growth mechanism allows knotweed to colonise large areas quickly.

Flowering Japanese Knotweed
Flowering Japanese Knotweed

Legal Responsibilities Regarding Knotweed in the UK

In the UK, property owners must navigate specific legal responsibilities when dealing with Japanese knotweed. The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 makes it an offence to allow Japanese knotweed to spread in the wild. This means if knotweed from your property extends onto neighbouring lands or public areas, you could face legal action. Furthermore, under the Environmental Protection Act 1990, soil or plant material contaminated with Japanese knotweed is classified as controlled waste. It requires proper disposal methods to prevent ecological damage.

Failure to comply with these regulations can result in significant fines or legal proceedings, emphasising the need for diligent knotweed management and disposal!

How to Get Rid of Japanese Knotweed?

Getting rid of Japanese Knotweed is no mean feat. If you are tackling it yourself, be prepared for a good battle. Follow our steps so you ultimately come out on top.

1 – Early Identification: Spring and Early Summer

  • Begin by regularly inspecting your property during spring and early summer for signs of young knotweed. These shoots appear red/purple, resembling asparagus.
  • If you find a small infestation, carefully dig out the rhizomes. Use protective gloves and ensure you remove as much of the root system as possible, as even small fragments can lead to regrowth.

2 – Herbicide Treatment: Late Summer to Autumn

  • When the plants are flowering, typically late summer to autumn, is the ideal time to apply glyphosate-based herbicides. This timing ensures the herbicide is more effectively absorbed and transported throughout the plant.
  • Carefully follow the label instructions for application and safety. You may need to reapply the herbicide over several seasons for complete eradication.

3 – Continuous Monitoring and Treatment

  • Consistently monitor the treated areas for any signs of regrowth. This is crucial as knotweed can be resilient.
  • If regrowth is observed, repeat the herbicide treatment in the following year. This ongoing vigilance is key to preventing the knotweed from re-establishing.

4 – Professional Removal of Large Infestations

  • In cases of large or stubborn infestations, hiring a professional is advisable. They are equipped with the expertise and tools necessary for effective removal.
  • Professionals may employ specialised techniques such as stem injection or soil screening, which can be more effective and environmentally friendly compared to broad-spectrum herbicide application.

5 – Legal and Safe Disposal

  • Proper disposal of Japanese knotweed is critical. The plant material should be treated as controlled waste.
  • Avoid composting or relocating the plant material to prevent accidental spread. Instead, use authorised disposal methods in line with local environmental regulations.

6 – Ongoing Vigilance

  • Japanese knotweed eradication is typically a multi-year endeavour. It requires patience and consistent monitoring.
  • Keep an eye on the area for several years, even after no visible signs of the plant are present, to ensure it has been completely eradicated.

Another great way to get rid of Japanese Knotweed is to harvest and eat it! It is said that it tastes like a lemony rhubarb.

Using Herbicides Like Glyphosate Concentrate

  • When using herbicides like glyphosate for Japanese knotweed, it’s crucial to follow safety and environmental guidelines.
  • Always read and adhere to the label instructions. This includes the correct dosage, application method, and timing for maximum efficacy.
  • Personal safety is paramount. Wear protective clothing like gloves, long sleeves, and eyewear to prevent skin and eye contact.
  • Be mindful of the surrounding environment. Avoid application near water sources and on windy days to prevent chemical drift.
Cut Japanese Knotweed Stems in a Bucket
Japanese Knotweed Stems

Professional Assistance in Knotweed Removal

When to Seek Professional Help

  • If you become worried that it has the potential to spread.
  • Consider professional assistance for large infestations or if the knotweed is in challenging locations, like near buildings or water bodies.
  • Professionals have access to more potent treatments and specialised equipment.

Accreditations and Registrations to Look For

  • Ensure the contractor has relevant accreditations such as BASIS (British Agrochemicals Standards Inspection Scheme) Professional Register or Amenity Assured standard.
  • Check for membership in professional bodies like the Invasive Non-Native Specialists Association (INNSA) or the Property Care Association (PCA) which indicates adherence to industry standards and best practices.

Prevention and Long-Term Management of Knotweed

Effective prevention and long-term management of Japanese knotweed involve a combination of regular vigilance and strategic practices. Regularly inspecting your property for early signs of knotweed regrowth is crucial for early intervention. Implementing physical barriers or root barriers can be an effective strategy in areas prone to knotweed, especially to prevent its spread from neighbouring properties.

Ongoing monitoring remains essential even after the initial removal of knotweed. Consistently monitoring the affected areas, and maintaining a record of treatment areas and times, helps in tracking progress and identifying any areas where knotweed may persist. This continuous vigilance ensures that any new growth is addressed promptly, safeguarding against the re-establishment of this invasive species.


In summary, the successful identification and eradication of Japanese knotweed involve a combination of early detection, appropriate chemical treatment, professional assistance, and diligent long-term management. Property owners should be vigilant, proactive, and responsible in managing this invasive species to protect the environment and their property. By following these guidelines, we can collectively mitigate the impact of Japanese knotweed and preserve our natural and urban landscapes.

Garden Doctor Tips

Facts about Knotweed Infographic
Facts about Knotweed Infographic

“Early detection of Japanese knotweed can make a significant difference; look out for its distinctive asparagus-like shoots in spring!”

“Combining multiple eradication methods, such as chemical treatment and physical removal, often yields the best results in controlling knotweed!”

“After removing knotweed, stay vigilant and routinely check for regrowth to prevent its comeback!”

“Consider consulting with a knotweed removal specialist if the infestation is large or complex, as they have the expertise and tools for effective management!”

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you compost knotweed?

In the UK, it is illegal to compost Japanese knotweed or add it to green waste. The plant’s regenerative properties mean it can easily spread from compost, leading to further infestation. Instead, it must be disposed of as controlled waste according to strict environmental regulations to prevent its spread.

What kills Japanese knotweed permanently?

Persistent treatment with specifically designed herbicides, like glyphosate, and professional removal methods including excavation and root barrier systems, are effective in permanently killing Japanese knotweed. These methods require diligence and often multiple treatments.

Should I pull out knotweed?

Pulling out Japanese knotweed is generally not recommended, especially for large infestations. This is because breaking the plant can inadvertently aid in its spread, as even small fragments can regenerate into new plants.

Is it illegal to plant Japanese knotweed in the UK?

Yes, it’s illegal to plant Japanese knotweed in the UK. The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 prohibits the planting or otherwise causing Japanese knotweed to grow in the wild.

Do you need a License to remove knotweed?

While you do not need a specific license to remove Japanese knotweed, it’s crucial to comply with regulations regarding its disposal. Under the Environmental Protection Act 1990, knotweed is classified as controlled waste, requiring careful handling and disposal at licensed facilities.

How much does it cost to remove Japanese knotweed in the UK?

The cost of removing Japanese knotweed in the UK can vary significantly, typically ranging from a few hundred to several thousand pounds. The cost depends on factors like the size of the infestation, the chosen removal method, and whether professional services are employed.

Can I sue my Neighbour for Japanese knotweed?

Yes, you can sue your neighbour for Japanese knotweed if it spreads from their property to yours and causes damage. Under UK law, allowing knotweed to spread to adjacent properties can be considered a private nuisance. If successful, a lawsuit could potentially lead to compensation for the cost of removal and any related damages. However, it’s advisable to first seek a resolution through communication and, if necessary, mediation, before resorting to legal action.

Can you get rid of knotweed yourself?

Yes, you can get rid of knotweed yourself, but it’s important to follow strict disposal requirements. Removed knotweed should be treated as controlled waste under the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This means it must be disposed of at licensed disposal sites to prevent further spread. Due to these complexities and the invasive nature of knotweed, professional assistance is often recommended, especially for larger infestations.

Will the council remove Japanese knotweed?

Councils in the UK typically do not remove Japanese knotweed from private property. It is usually the responsibility of the property owner to deal with the plant. However, some councils may offer advice or services for controlling or removing knotweed. It’s advisable to contact your local council for specific guidance and information on any services they may provide.


Trevor Wright is not just a seasoned horticulturist; he’s the esteemed Garden Doctor. With a BSc in Horticulture and years of hands-on experience in the soil, Trevor has become a trusted mentor for all things gardening. As the founder of Garden Doctor, he’s committed to clarifying the intricacies of gardening, offering straightforward advice that’s rooted in years of practice. His writing is a garden of how-tos, savvy insights, and comprehensive guides that enable individuals to nurture and grow their garden dreams. When he’s not knee-deep in garden beds, Trevor is at his keyboard passing on his green-thumbed wisdom to budding gardeners, ensuring that the legacy of sustainable and joyful gardening blossoms far and wide.

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